The Forestry Forum is sponsored in part by:

iDRY Vacuum Kilns


Forestry Forum
Sponsored by:


TimberKing Sawmills



Toll Free 1-800-582-0470

LogRite Tools



Norwood Industries Inc.




Your source for Portable Sawmills, Edgers, Resaws, Sharpeners, Setters, Bandsaw Blades and Sawmill Parts

EZ Boardwalk Sawmills. More Saw For Less Money!

STIHLDealers.com sponsored by Northeast STIHL


Woodland Sawmills

Peterson Swingmills

 KASCO SharpTech WoodMaxx Blades

Turbosawmill

Sawmill Exchange

Michigan Firewood, your BRUTE FORCE Authorized Dealer

Baker Products

ECHO-Bearcat

iDRY Wood Lumber Vacuum Drying for everyon

Nyle Kiln Dry Systems

Chainsawr, The Worlds Largest Inventory of Chainsaw Parts

Smith Sawmill Service



Author Topic: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint  (Read 1843 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« on: January 27, 2021, 10:33:46 PM »
I'm making a simple little stool to use at my reloading bench.  Thought some might be interested in the construction.

I think this method of putting legs into a bench or seat might date back a few hundred years so it can be done with hand tools.  The quality Windsor chairs are made this way.

First I drill holes in the seat for my legs.  I'm doing it on my wood lathe using the lathe indexing for spacing.  I set my home made boring block to drill at a 11 degree splay angle.  The traditional way is to use a bit brace with an auger bit.  In the picture I'm drilling through the top of the seat.






I've turned the legs on the lathe out of wet green wood.  I've left extra meat on the tendon that goes into the mortise on the seat.  I want to super dry the tendon to less than 5% moisture content but keep the rest of the leg at 20% or more moisture content.

No problem.  I wrap all of the leg with aluminum foil except for the tendon.  Stick the tendon in my sand filled coffee can.  Turn on the hot plate to heat no more than 180 degrees and in 30 hours my tendon is at 4% with no degrade.




I put the legs back on the lathe and turn my tendon to finish size.  Next step is to fit my super dry tendon into the holes in the seat.



As you can see the tendon has a taper, 6 degrees included angle to be exact.  When somebody sits on the stool the joint will get stronger just from compression.

I taper ream the holes in my seat with my taper reamer.



I just made this taper reamer a few days ago.  The osage orange is still a nice yellow.



The donut top center is a gauge to check my fit on the legs.  The wood to the right is another gauge I can use to insure my taper on the leg tendons is accurate.

My seat is almost at EMC cherry.  As it dries the mortise will seize the leg tendons in a death grip. :D 

Next step is to turn the leg stretchers.  I'll turn them out of air dried wood.  They will be small enough I can nuke them in the microwave to less than 4% (I'm not sure if they used microwaves 200 years ago).  I'll fit them into the wet legs (that's why I wrapped the top part of the legs with aluminum foil).
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline Walnut Beast

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2295
  • Location: NE
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #1 on: January 27, 2021, 11:19:50 PM »
Looks great Larry 👍

Offline Ed_K

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 3493
  • Age: 68
  • Location: Leyden,Ma.
  • Gender: Male
  • Leave it better than you found it. Ed_K
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #2 on: January 28, 2021, 09:01:25 AM »
 Larry, that is really kool 8).
Ed K

Offline 21incher

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2747
  • Age: 65
  • Location: Marion, NY
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #3 on: January 28, 2021, 07:03:15 PM »
Thanks for sharing your secrets with us. I have to copy your drilling jig.
Hudson HFE-21 on a custom trailer, Deere 4100, Kubota BX 2360, Echo CS590 & CS310, home built wood splitter, home built log arch, and a logrite cant hook.

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #4 on: February 12, 2021, 11:25:32 AM »
16 degrees outside and windy.  70 degrees in the shop.  Didn't take long to decide I wanted to make stools today!

Pulled some walnut crotches out of stock to make seats.



Got some maple seats cut out and ready to carve.



This is the completed stool that started this thread.  I got input on how I can improve and have made design changes on the stools I'm making now.



Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline Walnut Beast

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2295
  • Location: NE
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #5 on: February 12, 2021, 01:42:10 PM »
Just curious Larry are they kiln dried or just air dried

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #6 on: February 12, 2021, 05:14:51 PM »
I kiln dried the walnut 20 years ago but its at air dry EMC now.  The rest is air dry or even a little wetter, especially the legs.
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline kantuckid

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 1332
  • Age: 77
  • Location: Eastern KY
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #7 on: February 13, 2021, 08:49:15 AM »
TENONS not TENDONS! :D 
I've made a lot of stools. I never use a tapered hole. In a solid top I always use a straight sided hole and a tight fitting, dry tenon which has been sawed with a thin kerf slit to receive a thin wedge of hard wood. I like contrasting wood so mostly use Osage Orange or Walnut for my wedges or Maple in Walnut. I always use glue on tenons and wedges. The wedge kerf needs to be placed in the leg tenon such that the forces don't tend to split the top grain over time. 
Drilling angles I often use a drilled block with my angle as a guide combined with angled drill press setups. I prefer a wedged tenon or a tapered tenon as they start tight and stay tight. 
   
Kan=Kansas;tuck=Kentucky;kid=what I'm not

Online ESFted

  • Full Member x2
  • ***
  • Posts: 200
  • Age: 78
  • Location: Yorktown, Virginia
  • Gender: Male
  • Just a chain saw, so far.
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #8 on: February 13, 2021, 10:51:51 AM »
Larry,
Nice job!  Thank you for taking the time to show us your process.
S.U.N.Y. College of Environmental Science and Forestry '65
Stihl MS661CRM, Stihl MS460,  Stihl MSE 220, Solo 64S, Granberg Alaskan MK-IV CSM
Dreams of a Wm LT70 w/all the accessories

Offline samandothers

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 3660
  • Location: Charlotte NC To SW Va.
  • Gender: Male
  • Been learning on FF since 1/20/12
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #9 on: February 13, 2021, 12:29:36 PM »
I appreciate your sharing your approach.  The use of the sand bucket was ingenious.  Thanks to you and others on sharing approaches to facilitate your processes.

Offline Tom King

  • Senior Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 622
  • Age: 71
  • Location: Lake Gaston, Henrico, NC
  • Gender: Male
  • I'm new!
    • Share Post
    • HistoricHousePreservation
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #10 on: February 19, 2021, 11:52:01 AM »
There is currently more demand, than supply, for such chairmaking reamers, and      tenon      taperer's.   Someone could have a side business making them.  Some chairmakers sell them, but they're usually busy building Windsor chairs, and can't keep them in stock.

Windsor chair stretchers often have wedged tenons into stopped holes, that are bulbed out inside the mortises to allow for the end of the tenon expanding.  Some have a dry bulb, popped into a green leg mortise.  They use the same sand method, or some variation such as a light bulb in a box, for drying the top leg tenons, while leaving the rest of the leg green.

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tenon joint
« Reply #11 on: February 19, 2021, 03:08:15 PM »
I've become fascinated with making stools and have researched some of the better makers.

Wharton Esherick (rip) seems to be the grand daddy.  Hurry and ya can buy three of his stools for $38,000 plus shipping!
Wharton Esherick stools

I did wedge the legs on my first stool but not the stretchers.


The stool I'm working on now is getting a carved top.


I plan to wedge the stretchers just like Wharton.

The carving is something new for me.  I made a vacuum clamp to hold the seat.  Sharpened a drawknife I got from someplace.  Dug up an old Stanley spokeshave and than went on to make one.

Tom, I did notice some of the prices the chairmakers are getting for reamers.  I think one could make a fair profit at $140.  Not that hard to make.

And I have even learned how to spell tenon! :)
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline Hilltop366

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 3246
  • Location: Nova Scotia
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #12 on: February 19, 2021, 05:55:19 PM »
 smiley_thumbsup popcorn_smiley

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #13 on: April 17, 2021, 09:16:01 PM »









I made two maple stools like this.  I like the looks but they are uncomfortable to sit on.  Finish is Livos Kunos natural oil (German $$) but an excellent finish.

Learning, I changed my design.  The seat on this one is very comfortable.  I also spaced the legs out to give more foot room on the stretchers.  The seat is sweetgum with ash legs.  Finish is wipe on Minwax poly.



I think I have the technique down and happy with my present design.  Working on two more seats using walnut crotch wood. ;D
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline Stephen1

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2402
  • Age: 65
  • Location: Kilworthy ON> Canada
  • Gender: Male
  • Where there is a will, there is a way!
    • Share Post
    • muskoka Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #14 on: April 17, 2021, 09:37:54 PM »
Very nice work Larry. I like the looks of the last stool.
IDRY Vacum Kiln, LT40HDWide, BMS250 sharpener/setter 742b Bobcat, TCM forklift, Sthil 026,038, 461. 1952 TEA Fergusan Tractor

Offline Tom King

  • Senior Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 622
  • Age: 71
  • Location: Lake Gaston, Henrico, NC
  • Gender: Male
  • I'm new!
    • Share Post
    • HistoricHousePreservation
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #15 on: April 17, 2021, 09:51:26 PM »
Looks great!  And I like the proportions of the stretchers a Lot better.  I started to say something about the first ones, but decided not to, and I see you agreed with me anyway, without me having to say anything.

Offline samandothers

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 3660
  • Location: Charlotte NC To SW Va.
  • Gender: Male
  • Been learning on FF since 1/20/12
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #16 on: April 18, 2021, 09:31:34 AM »
Larry if you need an in biased opinion on the stool comfort just send me one.  I'll use it and give you some feedback.  I'll just keep the stool for continued testing and feedback!  ;D  Just trying to help you out. 

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #17 on: May 12, 2021, 09:31:54 PM »
A couple of crotch walnut stool seats in progress.




I made a new reamer out of osage orange.  Refined the process of drilling and reaming so it goes fast with little error.

I'm turning legs for the seats now.  Making them a little thinner with fair curves in hopes of making the stool appear to be lighter.
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline Tom King

  • Senior Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 622
  • Age: 71
  • Location: Lake Gaston, Henrico, NC
  • Gender: Male
  • I'm new!
    • Share Post
    • HistoricHousePreservation
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #18 on: May 13, 2021, 07:14:50 PM »
My friends that work for NASA say their definition of an expert is someone who has done something once before.

I'd say you now qualify at someplace beyond being called an expert on this type of chair/stool building.

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #19 on: May 23, 2021, 09:31:27 PM »


Crotch walnut seat and cherry legs makes an interesting stool.  I've refined the drilling and reaming on the seat for the legs.  Happy with the fit and size.

Always tweaking my finishes.  Sanded to 320 and used a mix of Minwax poly, naphtha, and a bit of real tung oil.  I think it looks good and feels good when I rub my hand across it.

Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline tule peak timber

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2856
  • Age: 68
  • Location: Aguanga , Ca
  • Gender: Male
  • The Wizard of Crap
    • Share Post
    • tule peak timber
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #20 on: May 24, 2021, 06:42:18 AM »
Beautiful and inspiring work Larry. Can you tell us more about the German finish mentioned earlier in the thread?
persistence personified - never let up , never let down

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #21 on: May 24, 2021, 04:25:46 PM »
I've been using Livos Kunos Natural Oil Sealer.  Easy application, less amber than other oils, and has outstanding wear resistance.  More info can be found here.  Livos
 
The USA distributors are a husband wife team.  Andy's main job is high end cabinets in Idaho.  He uses Livos, I think exclusively, in his work which says a lot for the product.  Betsy handles Livos sales.  Both are knowledgeable and friendly.

Lots of other products in the line up.  Bunch of different stains which work well, lots of brown shades! :D  I tried a few out trying to duplicate fumed white oak.
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline tule peak timber

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2856
  • Age: 68
  • Location: Aguanga , Ca
  • Gender: Male
  • The Wizard of Crap
    • Share Post
    • tule peak timber
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #22 on: May 24, 2021, 07:11:39 PM »
The fumed/grayish is tricky and hard to do.Look at some of Rubio Monocoat products.They respond differently on different woods......
  Larry ,,,your stools are "hot" , taken another way ---- great work-and it shows it ! 8) 8) 8) 8) 8)
persistence personified - never let up , never let down

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #23 on: May 24, 2021, 09:17:33 PM »
Thanks for all the really nice complements guys. :) :)  Gives me encouragement to keep on trying to improve.
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline tule peak timber

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2856
  • Age: 68
  • Location: Aguanga , Ca
  • Gender: Male
  • The Wizard of Crap
    • Share Post
    • tule peak timber
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #24 on: May 24, 2021, 09:32:50 PM »
I reached out to the Livos group. Thank you for the info and the thoughtful build post !
persistence personified - never let up , never let down

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #25 on: July 13, 2021, 10:57:38 PM »
Another one.













Still in the exploring process.  Throwing stuff on the wall to see what sticks.
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline Ruffgear

  • Full Member
  • **
  • Posts: 85
  • Age: 45
  • Location: New London MN
  • Gender: Male
  • I'm new!
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #26 on: July 18, 2021, 11:30:16 AM »
Beautiful stools Larry!!!

Offline WDH

  • Forester
  • Administrator
  • *****
  • Posts: 31601
  • Age: 67
  • Location: Perry, GA
  • Gender: Male
  • April 1998 - August 2008
    • Share Post
    • hamsleyhardwood.com
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #27 on: July 18, 2021, 06:45:41 PM »
Fantastic!
Woodmizer LT40HDD35, John Deere 2155, Kubota M5-111, Nyle L53 Dehumidification Kiln, and a passion for all things with leafs, twigs, and bark.  hamsleyhardwood.com

Offline Larry

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 6441
  • Age: 72
  • Location: NW Arkansas
  • Gender: Male
    • Share Post
    • Copas Sawmill
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #28 on: July 18, 2021, 09:41:55 PM »
Thanks for the kind words guys!  Makes me feel good. :)

That last stool is the best I've made to date, so I decided to give it to the Eureka Springs School of Art

Its a fast growing local craft school with a great wood and metal shop that I support.  They will put it in an art auction this October to raise funds for the school.  Can't wait to see what it brings.
Larry, making useful and beautiful things out of the most environmental friendly material on the planet.

We need to insure our customers understand the importance of our craft.

Offline tule peak timber

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 2856
  • Age: 68
  • Location: Aguanga , Ca
  • Gender: Male
  • The Wizard of Crap
    • Share Post
    • tule peak timber
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #29 on: July 19, 2021, 09:21:39 PM »
Thanks for the kind words guys!  Makes me feel good. :)

That last stool is the best I've made to date, so I decided to give it to the Eureka Springs School of Art

Its a fast growing local craft school with a great wood and metal shop that I support.  They will put it in an art auction this October to raise funds for the school.  Can't wait to see what it brings.
Good on you Larry. 8)
persistence personified - never let up , never let down

Offline Nebraska

  • Senior Member x2
  • *****
  • Posts: 1754
  • Age: 54
  • Location: God's country or pretty close
  • Gender: Male
  • Lurked for quite a while, learning !
    • Share Post
Re: Bar stool - locking mortise and tendon joint
« Reply #30 on: July 20, 2021, 09:42:17 AM »
Wow.  I really think that may be the prettiest stool I've ever seen.  So much talent here.


Share via delicious Share via digg Share via facebook Share via linkedin Share via pinterest Share via reddit Share via stumble Share via tumblr Share via twitter

xx
Achilles tendon

Started by Jamie_C on Health and Safety

2 Replies
593 Views
Last post August 11, 2014, 12:42:51 PM
by Jamie_C
xx
Torn Bicep Muscel Tendon

Started by Ron Scott on Health and Safety

19 Replies
1078 Views
Last post October 31, 2019, 06:14:46 PM
by Ron Scott
xx
The Stool

Started by Burlkraft on General Woodworking

30 Replies
3922 Views
Last post February 15, 2012, 07:07:50 AM
by ellmoe
xx
Locking dogs

Started by EZ on Sawmills and Milling

9 Replies
1828 Views
Last post November 18, 2011, 05:19:35 AM
by EZ
 


Powered by EzPortal