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Author Topic: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed  (Read 5590 times)

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Offline realzed

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #40 on: August 23, 2022, 11:46:58 PM »
We've had a couple and they are beautiful companions - very intelligent and trainable, but high energy for the next year and a half for you I would bet until she slows down!
The colour of her ears now, will be a pretty accurate indicator of what her colour will be when she matures.
I showed the picture to my wife and it brought tears to her eyes - remembering the ones we had - you get so attached to them that I don't consider that we could fathom ever getting another..
My wife's first comment was "ohho here comes trouble, keep anything wood related out of reach or it will be gone"..  :D

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #41 on: September 01, 2022, 10:35:56 PM »
Despite the new puppy I've made some progress. I finished the 28 post mortises and am on to the three way joint between the tenons on the post tops, tie beams on the short axis of the shed, and eave beams on the long axis. This joinery pattern is called oriokigumi 折置組 and is/was used mostly for barns. Here is a picture from a book of joinery models. The tie beam sits on the post.



 


A stepped tenon on the post top rises through mortises in the tie beam and eave beam. The joint between the tie and eave beam is a cogged lap, called a watariago joint in Japanese. It is supposed to be as strong as a half lap joint but removes less wood. I can't confirm that but it's what I'm doing.

I started on the tie beam. I did the mortise first using a drill and chisels, checking for square. Then saws, chisels, and a router or router plane. I'm still working out the best method for my skills and tooling and tolerance for noise and mess vs speed. The bevel in the corner is to accommodate a chamfer on the the eave beam.



 



Offline JRWoodchuck

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #42 on: September 01, 2022, 11:23:21 PM »
Iím really enjoying this thread! Thanks for bringing us along!
Home built bandsaw mill still trying find the owners manual!

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #43 on: September 02, 2022, 09:14:21 PM »
Thanks for the feedback. Iím having fun trying to figure it all out. 
Gary

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #44 on: September 03, 2022, 09:48:32 PM »
I finished the joinery for three tie/cross beams. The mortises in the centers of the beams are for the equivalent of king posts.



 


Edit: the beams are the ones shown here in brown.




Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #45 on: September 06, 2022, 11:02:57 PM »
Rather than complete the joinery for the post/tie/eave I've moved on to the joinery for the floor beams. Only because I already have them in my shop and moving the posts or eave beams would be a big hassle.

I started with one of the floor beams in the back of the shed since if I screw up my mistakes there will mostly be hidden. First off is one of the beams that will have a three-way joint.



 

Here is the right end of that beam. It will receive a long tenon from the floor beam to the right and be tightened down by wedges that insert into those half arrow mortises. I showed the joint model way up thread.



 

And the other end of the beam has a haunched tenon, some stub tenons, an unusual square peg that is rotated 45 degrees, and a kerf. The haunch and stub tenons resist twist without removing too much wood from the post and also help support load on the beam. The rotated peg and kerf is, I think, genius.

I found this way of pegging tenons in a blog post by Jon Billing, an American who worked for a time with Somakosha, a Japanese construction company that builds using modern versions of old Japanese methods. The link describes using it for furniture but it was born in timber framing.

https://www.bigsandwoodworking.com/maruta-bench-build-3/

Under tension, the tenon will tend to spread and increase resistance since it will be under compression. It will act more like a dovetail. Here is a sketch of the beam in my shed.



 

And here I am today. I haven't chopped the peg mortise yet. It needs to be draw bored and I am waiting to get all the other joinery done and test fit first.



 




Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #46 on: September 08, 2022, 11:04:59 PM »
I finished the second of two "rod tenon mortises" (a rough translation). This one is a little better than my first.



 

There is a subtle feature that the two little half mortises for the locking keys need to be tapered along their depth. I haven't been able to find a good description of how to layout out and cut these in English but I do have a drawing by a Japanese carpentry master name Shinzo Togashi that gives a clue that the tapers should be about 1/20th the width of the beam. In my case about 5-6 mm.



 

Here is one layout and finished half mortise. Chris Hall mentions that because of the taper in one dimension, ideally the key needs to be tapered in the other dimension as well but the second taper is very small.

 


 





Offline JRWoodchuck

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #47 on: September 09, 2022, 05:12:49 PM »
Man those look like they are a bear to cut!
Home built bandsaw mill still trying find the owners manual!

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #48 on: September 09, 2022, 08:56:55 PM »
The tricky part for me is finding a way to cleanly cut the right angled part of the wedge mortise. I tried different ways and think a small, fine saw is the way to go. I don't have a woodworking saw, either English or Japanese, that is fine enough and small enough to fit into the joint. I ended up using a piece of hacksaw blade. Once that cut is done, however you do it, the rest is all paring and pretty simple.

Dorian Bracht has a video showing how to cut a similar joint with just a chisel. I tried that it works but if your wood is at all squirrely it can get ugly.



This joint and variations of it are very common in Japanese construction. It is much stronger in tension than a pegged tenon and there is virtually no chance of shear failure or compression failure of the wedges. It can also be easily dismantled if you leave the keys long so they can be pulled back out. Or tapped in and tightened more if the wood posts shrink. But a lot of up front work.
Gary

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #49 on: September 11, 2022, 09:21:36 PM »
Here is the male part of that mortise.



 

Since that member is only three feet long I cut the cheeks of the tenon on the band saw. Hand saws and chisels for the stub tenons, wedge mortises, and clean up.

As test assembled. The gap between the beams is where they insert into a post.



 

And a detail of the half mortises for the tapered wedges.



 

I am making the wedges parallelograms in sections. They can be made rectangular but that tends to spread the joint. Maybe not a big deal on wide beams. Parallelogram wedges are a little harder to make but are a better solution. Here are the two options from Chris Hall's masterful monograph on Japanese splicing joints.



 

 

 

Offline JRWoodchuck

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #50 on: September 13, 2022, 12:24:09 AM »
What is the purpose of the kerf cut on the male portion of the joint? I see it wraps the knot so it looks specifically placed. 
Home built bandsaw mill still trying find the owners manual!

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #51 on: September 13, 2022, 09:20:31 AM »
Ah. It's not a kerf, just a shallow check that happened to run along the tenon.

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #52 on: September 22, 2022, 09:27:41 PM »
I have the peripheral floor beams done and am on to the two sleeper beams (obiki 尾引). Shown from below they are the two beams colored tan.



 

As you can see one of the sleepers is part of the three-beams-to-post joint and the other connects directly to two peripheral beams. They span 6 feet and are 130 mm x 110 mm, roughly 5" x4". The sleeper that joins in the post has a tenon notched to capture the long tenon of the peripheral beam. The notch is displaced 1 mm toward the sleeper shoulder to give a slight draw bore effect that pulls the sleeper tighter to its post.

The other sleeper is joined to the peripheral beam with a partially housed double tenon. This joint is subtle. It maximizes the strength of the sleeper without removing too much wood from the peripheral beam. It also resists twisting. Often these sleepers are supported in their centers by posts underneath. I don't think I need them in my case but I can add them. The sleepers are also notched for cogged lap joints with the floor joists. The cogged laps eliminate the need for blocking to prevent the joists from rolling over or twisting.

One final design to note is that the sleepers are offset downwards 30 mm from the peripheral beams to accommodate the elevation of the joists in their cogged laps.



 




Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #53 on: September 25, 2022, 09:15:40 PM »
Got the sleepers all cleaned up and moved on to the side floor beams. Those have pockets on their inner faces to support the ends of the floor joists. I chopped the pockets out on both side beams and then laid those beams and the sleepers side by side to admire my work:



 

Oops.

After picking myself and dusting myself off I figured out how I made that layout error (I won't bore you with it, just a dumb mistake) and decided my goof on that one side beam wasn't a catastrophe. I just need to even up the widths of those laps and pockets making them 52 mm instead of 48 mm wide. I haven't milled the joists yet and my stock is 60 mm wide so I have room to play. And nothing wrong with having marginally stiffer joists at slightly more than 2" wide rather than slightly less than 2".

Here they are almost all adjusted.



 

If I'm lucky this will be the worst mistake I make.

Offline JRWoodchuck

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #54 on: September 27, 2022, 05:15:38 PM »
Really excited to see this get put together!
Home built bandsaw mill still trying find the owners manual!

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #55 on: September 27, 2022, 10:05:13 PM »
Really excited to see this get put together!
Me too, but man it's still going to be a while. I was hoping to get it raised and roofed before the Willamette Valley rainy season begins again but prospects are looking dim. Plan B is to get the frame cut and store it over the winter while I work on the doors and windows and gable end lattices. Not the best idea to cut joints and let it sit because wood will move. But the wood is also dry now, not green, so maybe it won't move too much.
I see you are in Baker City. My wife and I were there in June on our way back from Yellowstone. Stayed at the very cool Geiser Grand Hotel and took a lovely early morning dog walk around downtown admiring the fascinating architecture. An Oregon small town gem.
Gary

Online aigheadish

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #56 on: September 28, 2022, 06:52:12 AM »
Could you fill the joints with scrap over the winter or that wouldn't stop it from moving enough to worry about? Maybe some extremely hard wood to keep things more still? (I have no idea if that possible, I don't really know what I'm talking about, just fascinated with this project)
New Holland LB75b, Husqvarna 455 Rancher, Husqvarna GTH52XLS, Hammerhead 250, Honda VTX1300 for now and probably for sale (let me know if you are interested!)

Offline GRadice

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #57 on: September 29, 2022, 08:49:39 PM »
Could you fill the joints with scrap over the winter or that wouldn't stop it from moving enough to worry about?
That's an interesting idea. After thinking about, I guess I'm more concerned with the beams twisting or bowing and throwing the joints out of alignment than I am about the joint components shrinking or swelling. But, not much I can do about that. Perhaps do some partial assemblies?
I finished the joinery for one of the eave beams. For scale it is 13 ft long. The notches are for rafters on 1 ft centers. The ends have a mortise for a floating rod tenon that will join the barge boards to the eave beam.


 


 

 

Online aigheadish

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #58 on: September 30, 2022, 06:42:46 AM »
Duh, yeah, the whole beams moving makes more sense than the joints closing up on you...
New Holland LB75b, Husqvarna 455 Rancher, Husqvarna GTH52XLS, Hammerhead 250, Honda VTX1300 for now and probably for sale (let me know if you are interested!)

Offline JRWoodchuck

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Re: Planning a Japanese inspired garden shed
« Reply #59 on: September 30, 2022, 11:57:00 PM »
Glad you had a nice stop over. Pretty fortunate to have grown up here and get to raise my family here! Could you put it together in bents? Just for storage to keep things together? Although I canít imagine being dried to 11-12% theyíll move to muchÖ
Home built bandsaw mill still trying find the owners manual!


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